It is now online the editorial: Editorial: Effects of Physical Exercise on Brain and Cognitive Functioning, volume II by Soledad Ballesteros, Laura Piccardi, and Joshua Oon Goh, published in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. The editorial introduces Volume II of this research topic, which focuses on the effects of physical activity on the brain and cognition. It includes four articles dealing with the effects of physical exercise and physical activity on the brain and cognition of young and older adults. It includes three original research articles and a brief research report. All these studies show that physical activity plays a central role in the brain and cognition of young and older adults. Future longitudinal intervention studies with experimental and active control groups will show types of exercises, training duration, and training intensity that are more successful in improving brain functioning, executive functions, and health conditions across the lifespan.