Topographic Memory

Topographic Memory allows maintaining online, learning and recalling environmental information. It is related to homing behaviour and it is dissociated from visuo-spatial memory in the space of reaching (i.e., Piccardi et al., 2008; 2010; 2011). In fact, brain lesions can selectively impair the ability to memorise the environment but not the ability to remember the distribution of objects in space (Piccardi et al., 2010; Bianchini et al., 2014). An fMRI study has shown that although the brain network involved in the two memories is similar, there are areas specifically involved in topographic memory and in the memory for the reaching space (Nemmi et al., 2013).Its development also follows different evolutionary stages: memory in reaching space develops earlier than memory in navigational space (Piccardi et al., 2014). This difference can be explained from a functional point of view: first we know the space near us and then we explore the space around us.

Divergent Thinking

Creativity has been identified as a predictor for educational success and wellbeing, and has been proposed as away to improve the quality of life in healthy and pathological aging (Palmiero et al., 2012, 2014, 2016 a,b; Palmiero, 2015).Within this perspective mental imagery interfaces with mental imagery for providing access to thoughts, symbolization, and combination of elements, facilitating the emergence of new ideas and creativity. General creativity relies on multi-componential neural networks supporting executive functions, whereas domain-specific creativity (verbal, musical and visuo-spatial) roughly depends on different functional specialized brain regions (Boccia et al., 2016; Palmiero et al., 2016).